Detached Islands: Artificial Islands as adaptation challenges in the making
There is surprisingly little information and concern within academic literature in the field of coastal or marine planning and management related to the issue of artificial islands. This is particularly noteworthy considering the climate change phenomenon, vis-à-vis sea-level rise, the urgent need for adaptation, efforts aiming for sustainable use of coastal areas, and the recent focus in academic circles on marine spatial planning. Most literature (including grey literature) on artificial islands appears in the engineering and geology disciplines and is focused on energy extraction, i.e., oil and gas. Yet some coastal nations are intent on solving problems of lack of space and other resource shortages through construc- tion of near-shore artificial islands for myriad uses, including commercial, residential and transportation infrastructure. This paper presents a limited review of the policy literature about planning and construction of artificial islands. It reflects what repercussions artificial islands portend for marine conservation, sustainability and, most importantly, how climate change adaptation is highlighted or neglected in spatial solutions addressed by the building of nearshore artificial islands. The Israeli situation, where tenders have been recently published calling for planning and building of islands in the Mediterranean Sea, serves as an example.
Anglin, D. 2018. Personal communication [via email], M.Sc., P. Eng., Baird & Associates Coastal Engineer Ltd., 23.7.2018
Barnes, B. B., & Hu, C. (2016). Island building in the South China Sea: detection of turbidity plumes and artificial islands using Landsat and MODIS data. Scientific Reports, 6, 33194. doi: 10.1038/srep33194
Bishop, M. J., Mayer-Pinto, M., Airoldi, L., Firth, L. B., Morris, R. L., Loke, L. H. L., et al. (2017). Effects of ocean sprawl on ecological connectivity: impacts and solutions. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 492, 7-30. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2017.01.021
Bort, M. (2009). T'hee HaYam -- The Conceptual Plan for the Marine Alternative for Haifa Development [in Hebrew]. Horizons in Geography (Ofekim b'Geografia), 73, 42-57
CBS, (2018). Sources of Population Growth by Type of Locality, Population Group and Religion Jerusalem.
Chee, S. Y., Othman, A. G., Sim, Y. K., Mat Adam, A. N., & Firth, L. B. (2017). Land reclamation and artificial islands: Walking the tightrope between development and conservation. Global Ecology and Conservation, 12, 80-95. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2017.08.005
CRC-URI. (2009). Adapting to Coastal Climate Change: A Guidebook for Development Planners. In Coastal Resources Center University of Rhode Island (CRC-URI) and the International Resources Group (IRG) (Eds.), (pp. 148): USAID.
Cressey, E. (2011). Gulf ecology hit by coastal development. Nature News, 16 November 2011.
Davenport, T. (2018). Island-building in the south china sea: Legality and limits. Asian Journal of International Law, 8(1), 76-90.
Douglas, E., Kirshen, P., Paolisso, M., Watson, C., Wiggin, J., Enrici, A., & Ruth, M. (2012). Coastal flooding, climate change and environmental justice: identifying obstacles and incentives for adaptation in two metropolitan Boston Massachusetts communities. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 17, 537-562.
Firth, L. B., Knights, A. M., Bridger, D., Evans, A. J., Mieszkowska, N., Moore, P. J., et al. (2016). Ocean sprawl: challenges and opportunities for biodiversity management in a changing world. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Ann. Review, 54, 193e269.
Fraschetti, S., Pipitone, C., Mazaris, A. D., Rilov, G., Badalamenti, F., Bevilacqua, S., . . . Katsanevakis, S. (2018). Light and Shade in Marine Conservation Across European and Contiguous Seas. Frontiers in Marine Science, 5(420). doi: 10.3389/fmars.2018.00420
Harte, J. (2010). Numbers Matter: Human Population as a Dynamic Factor in Environment Degradation. In L. Mazor (Ed.), A Pivotal Moment (pp. 136-144). Washington, DC: Island Press.
Holon, F., Marre, G., Parravicini, V., Mouquet, N., Bockel, T., Descamp, P., et al. (2018). A predictive model based on multiple coastal anthropogenic pressures explains the degradation status of a marine ecosystem: Implications for management and conservation. Biological Conservation, 222, 125-135. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2018.04.006
IPCC. (2014). Climate Change 2014: Summary for policymakers: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. In C. B. Field, V. R. Barros, J. Dokken, K. J. Mach, M. D. Mastrandrea, T. E. Bilir, M. Chatterjee, K. L. Ebi, Y. O. Estrada, R. C. Genova, B. Girma, E. S. Kissel, A. N. Levy, S. S. MacCracken, P. R. Mastrandrea & L. L. White (Eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 1-32.: Cambridge University Press
Ives, M. (2016). The Rising Toll of China's Offshore Island Land Grab, Yale Environment 360 https://e360.yale.edu/ accessed 5 January 2018.
Kallos, G., Astitha, M., Katsafados, P., Spyrou, C. (2007) Long-range transport of anthropogenically and naturally produced particulate matter in the Mediterranean and North Atlantic: current state of knowledge. J Appl Meteorol Clim 46:1230–1251
Katz, O., & Mushkin, A. (2013). Characteristics of sea-cliff erosion induced by a strong winter storm in the eastern Mediterranean. Quaternary Research, 80(1), 20-32. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yqres.2013.04.004
Li, L., Switzer, A. D., Wang, Y., Chan, C.-H., Qiu, Q., & Weiss, R. (2018). A modest 0.5-m rise in sea level will double the tsunami hazard in Macau. Science Advances, 4(8), eaat1180. doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aat1180
Lister, N., & Muk-Pavic, E. (2015). Sustainable artificial island concept for the Republic of Kiribati. Ocean Engineering, 98, 78-87. doi: 10.1016/j.oceaneng.2015.01.013
Merriam-Webster. (Ed.) (2003) English Dictionary 11 Revised Edition ed. Merriam-Webster.
Ministry of Transport and Road Safety, Notice to English News Media, July, 2017, https://www.mr.gov.il/officestenders/Pages/officetender.aspx?pID=597559
Moussavi, Z., & Aghaei, A. (2013). The Environment, Geopolitics and Artificial Islands of Dubai in the Persian Gulf. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 81, 311-313. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.06.434
Navarra, A., & Tubiana, L. E. (2013a). Regional Assessment of Climate Change in the Mediterranean, Vol 1: Air, Sea and Precipitation and Water. Switzerland: Springer.
Navarra, A., & Tubiana, L. E. (2013b). Regional Assessment of Climate Change in the Mediterranean, Vol 2: Agriculture, Forests and Ecosystem Services and People. Switzerland: Springer.
Navarra, A., & Tubiana, L. E. (2013c). Regional Assessment of Climate Change in the Mediterranean, Vol 3: Case studies. Switzerland: Springer.
Paz, S., & Kidar, O. (2007). Climate Change - Forecast Impacts and Predicted Phenomena: Global Background and Israeli Perspective [in Hebrew]. Haifa, Israel: Haykan Catedra for Geostrategy.
Pisacane, G., Sannino, G., Carillo, A., Struglia, M. V., & Bastianoni, S. (2018). Marine Energy Exploitation in the Mediterranean Region: Steps Forward and Challenges. Frontiers in Energy Research, 6(109). doi: 10.3389/fenrg.2018.00109
Poole, E. (2009). The Dubai Palms: Construction and Environmental Consquences. Paper presented at the World Environmental and Water Resources Congress.
Portman, M. E. (2011). Marine Spatial Planning: Achieving and Evaluating Integration. ICES Journal of Marine Science 2191-2200 68(10)
Portman, M. E. (2012). Losing Ground: Mediterranean Shoreline Change from an Environmental Justice Perspective. Coastal Management, 40(4), 421-441.
Portman, M. E. (2014). Regulatory capture by default: Offshore exploratory drilling for oil and gas. Energy Policy, 65, 37-47.
Portman, M. E. (2016). Chapter 11 - Current Issues: Coastal Adaptation to Climate Change Environmental Planning for Oceans and Coasts: Methods, Tools, Technologies (pp. 191-210). Switzerland: Springer.
Portman, M. E. (2018). Policy Options for Coastal Protection: Integrating Inland Water Management with Coastal Management for Greater Community Resilience. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, 144(4), 05018005. doi: doi:10.1061/(ASCE)WR.1943-5452.0000913
Portman, M. E., Duff, J. A., Köppel, J., Reisert, J., & Higgins, M. E. (2009). Offshore Wind Energy Development in the Exclusive Economic Zone: Legal and Policy Supports and Impediments in Germany and the U.S. Energy Policy, 37(9), 3596-3607.
Randolph, J. (2011). Environmental Land Use Planning and Management (2nd ed.). Washington DC: Island Press.
Rick, T. C., & Erlandson, J. M. (2009). Coastal Exploitation. Science, 325(5943), 952-953. doi: 10.1126/science.1178539
Semeoshenkova, V., & Newton, A. (2015). Overview of erosion and beach quality issues in three Southern European countries: Portugal, Spain and Italy. Ocean & Coastal Management, 118, Part A, 12-21. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2015.08.013
Technion Marine Plan Integrating Team. (2015). Israel Marine Plan (pp. 59). Haifa, Israel: Technion- Israel Institute of Technology.
Teff-Seker, Y., Eiran, E., & Rubin, A. (in press). Israel’s ‘Turn to the Sea’ and its Effect on Regional Policy. Journal of Israel Affairs.
UN General Assembly. (1982). Convention on the Law of the Sea, 10 December 1982, entered into force 16 November 1994. [accessed 4 January 2019].
Upham, P., Whitmarsh, L., Poortinga, W., Purdam, K., Darnton, A., McLachlan, C., & Devine‐Wright, P. (2009). Public Attitudes to Environmental Change: a selective review of theory and practice (pp. 134). UK.
Zviely, D., Bitan, M., & DiSegni, D. M. (2015). The effect of sea-level rise in the 21st century on marine structures along the Mediterranean coast of Israel: An evaluation of physical damage and adaptation cost. Applied Geography, 57, 154-162. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2014.12.007
Copyright (c) 2019 DIE ERDE – Journal of the Geographical Society of Berlin
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.